Many industrial emissions are difficult to reduce and are increasing. Norway is leading the way in EV deployment, but China dominates the purchase and production of steel and EV batteries. Her 40% of amphibians are endangered.
Increase in industry greenhouse gas emissions
Industrial activities such as mining, manufacturing, construction, and waste disposal (not including the energy sector) account for one-fifth of the world’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. If you add in the sector’s “indirect” emissions (those emitted during the production of the energy used by the sector), the amount reaches a third (according to GHG accounting rules, these emissions are (It is counted in the energy sector, not the sector). Since 2000, emissions from the industrial sector have increased faster than emissions from transport, buildings, agriculture, and electricity generation.
About two-thirds of industrial emissions, or 20% of total global emissions, come from the production of steel, cement and concrete, and chemicals, all ubiquitous products and all difficult to reduce. It’s an industry. The use of cement and steel has recently increased at a rate of 2.5-3% per year.
Industrial activities burn large amounts of fossil fuels directly and indirectly, but the chemical reactions involved in the production process also generate emissions. The latter emissions cannot be reduced simply by switching to renewable energy. The situation is made even more difficult by the long service life of most industrial plants. Nevertheless, reducing industrial emissions is critical to controlling climate change. Five changes are important in this difficult situation.But it’s not impossible-Sectors scheduled for reduction:
- Reduce demand for cement and steel, which account for 15% of global CO2 emissions. Examples include compact city planning and construction, stricter building standards, more efficient design and construction, substitution with sustainable alternative materials, and material reuse and recycling.
- Improve energy efficiency in industry. Although the trend is improving, it is possible to quadruple this rate by, for example, retrofitting plants with newer technologies, building steel plants that operate on decarbonized processes, implementing and monitoring energy performance standards, and reducing fossil fuel subsidies. There is a need to.
- Electrify the industry. Industry uses energy to power machinery and generate heat. Most of the electrification efforts to date have focused on the former, but it is the latter that consumes most of the energy.Although there is considerable scope to expand electrification of low-level heating using existing technologies (carbon pricing and the removal of subsidies will accelerate its deployment), the processahC produces about a third of industrial emissions and requires more research.
- Practicalize technology to reduce CO2 emissions from chemical reactions during production. Examples include green hydrogen-based steelmaking, alternative binders for cement, green ammonia fertilizers, and carbon capture and storage (which may be the only suitable and viable use for CCS). This will not be easy and will require significant investment and government encouragement with carrots and sticks.
- Reduce methane emissions from oil and gas operations. The oil and gas industry must significantly reduce methane emissions during exploration, production, storage, and transportation for the remainder of its limited lifespan. Eliminating flares and leaks is essential and can be done inexpensively.
These data and recommendations once again emphasize that while we may not have all the answers to controlling GHG emissions, we can still achieve dramatic emissions reductions. It means that you currently have sufficient knowledge, technology and economic know-how. It is not ignorance or innocence that holds us back, but vested interests and stupidity.
Tony Wood of the Grattan Institute says a major part of the problem in Australia is the lack of a national climate plan.What you need to plan “The right combination of political engagement, credible policy, industry coordination and community support.”In addition, the Net Zero National Cabinet Committee will implement the plan and implement its goals and policies rather than leaving them to virtually gather dust on a website.
Steel production in China and India
The use of steel is ubiquitous, but its manufacture is not. China produces more than half of the world’s steel.
India is in second place and has plans to significantly expand production. However, India is also aware of the greenhouse gas emissions associated with steel production, and is aiming to decarbonize the steel industry, which is expected to expand sevenfold over the next 50 years.
Currently, 90% of India’s steel production is coal-based, which is projected to decline to 29% by 2050 and zero by 2070. This sounds like a good thing, except that the actual amount of steel produced using coal will increase between now and 2050 (yellow numbers added to the histogram below). And inevitably, greenhouse gas emissions will also increase.
Norway is approaching EV saturation
In 2022, 10% of global passenger car sales were EVs (i.e., fully electric vehicles rather than hybrids). In Norway it was an impressive 80%. Apart from China (5% in 2020 and 22% in 2022), the only large car market above the global average is the EU (12%). The US (6.2%) is just over half, while Japan and India are both below 2%. Australia’s rate in 2022 was 4.3%.To keep global warming below 1.5ahC. By 2030, EVs should account for 75-95% of the world’s passenger vehicles. This requires an annual growth rate of 30%.
While it is clear that falling costs and improving technology are factors increasing the popularity of EVs, it is government policies (incentives and infrastructure) that explain the success of high-growth countries. The graph below shows some of Norway’s actions.
The good news for all countries is that a tipping point has arrived. If EV sales reach 1% of total sales, sales growth will further accelerate over the next five years. For example, four years after reaching 1%, Finland, Germany and the UK all reached 17-18%. Two years after hitting 1%, Australia has already reached 4.3%, and Finland is at the same level.
EV sales and batteries
Data doesn’t always speak for itself. One problem is that the terminology used in graphs and tables is not always clearly explained. Another is that it is not always easy to understand how (if at all) information from different sources is combined.
The EV article above focused on “passenger cars”, which I take to mean. private I believe this means a passenger vehicle, a vehicle commonly referred to as a passenger car or SUV.
The following figure comes from another source and shows EV sales by different vehicle types in the world in 2022. Half of EV sales were “two-wheelers and three-wheelers,” just over one-third were buses, and only one-seventh were “passenger cars.”
I don’t know much about motorcycles, so I assume this refers to electric bikes and electric scooters. I’m not sure if “two-wheeled vehicle” also includes battery-assisted pedal bicycles. It seems that the performance of electric bicycles and electric scooters (stand-on types) is becoming more and more similar to their traditional counterparts, but this is probably not the case. So-called “motor bike”.
The following graph shows who is buying “passenger EVs” (supposedly “cars”). More than half are purchased in China. Europe (28 countries) bought less than a third, and the US about a tenth.
Finally, who makes the batteries that all these vehicles need? No prizes for getting this right. The table below relates to current production volumes. all The situation is similar for lithium-ion batteries, as well as for current EV-specific battery production and the expansion of EV manufacturing capacity in the coming years.
Despite the difficulties associated with linking disparate datasets together, it is clear that China is leading the charge towards battery-powered road transport systems, but it would be a mistake to place more emphasis on public transport. isn’t it.
Amphibians are having trouble migrating in the modern world. 40% of species are at risk of extinction, and over the past 20 years it has increased by 40%. They are the most endangered species of vertebrates.
South-eastern Australia is one of the world’s hotspots for endangered amphibian species. Others include the Caribbean, Central America, the tropical Andes, Madagascar, China, and most of continental Europe.
(There are great photos of 30 more amphibians at the bottom of the linked article.)
Historically, the most common threats to amphibians have come from habitat loss (mainly due to agricultural expansion, but also timber and plant harvesting, and infrastructure development) and disease. Habitat loss, disease, and climate change have similarly contributed to the worsening threat status of individual species this century. Habitat protection contributed most to improving the current situation.
This is a sharp-nosed day frog native to Australia. If you want to see it, you’re out of luck. It is extinct and was last seen in 1997. It was wiped out by the chytrid fungus that is wreaking havoc on frogs all over the world.
You can monitor the health and distribution of Australia’s frogs by participating in the annual FrogID Week, held from 3 to 12 November. During his ID week in 2022, Batrachophyllia identified more than 32,000 frogs belonging to 111 species. So jump on it.
climate change captive
Amphibians are often adapted to live in a narrow range of geographic and climatic conditions. This is a result of their own anatomy and physiology, as well as the presence of specific animals and plants on which they depend for survival. When circumstances change, it becomes difficult to move and adapt. For example, as global warming worsens, many amphibians (rather than climate changers) will become prisoners of the climate because there will literally be nowhere left for them to live.
This is well illustrated by Venezuela’s “lost world” of tabletop mountains between 1,200 and 1,500 meters above sea level.